The relationship between blood lead levels and you can blood pressure level as well as aerobic chance implications

The relationship between blood lead levels and you can blood pressure level as well as aerobic chance implications

Rosenlund M, Berglind N, Hallqvist J, Bellander T, Bluhm Grams. 2005. Every day consumption out of magnesium and you may calcium supplements of liquid into the family relations in order to myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 16(4):570-576.

Rubenowitz Age, Axelsson Grams, Rylander R. 1996. Magnesium for the liquids and you may demise regarding acute myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 143(5):456-462.

Rubenowitz Age, Axelsson G, Rylander R. 1999. Magnesium and you can calcium supplements inside liquid and you may dying of intense myocardial infarction in females. Epidemiology ten(1):31-thirty-six.

Rubenowitz E, Molin We, Axelsson G, Rylander Roentgen. 2000. Magnesium into the liquids in terms of morbidity and you may mortality out of intense myocardial infarction. Epidemiology eleven(4):416-421.

Sauvant MP, Pepin D. 2000. Geographic type of death of heart problems and you can liquid inside the good French short town (Puy de- Dome). Environ Res 84(3):219-227.

Sinclair Ml, Schlosser O. 2007. Water softening: epidemiological research on the calcium and you can magnesium into the water and you will cardiovascular state. Water21 – Magazine of the Internationally Liquids Organization Feb:8-19.

Theophanides T, Angiboust JF, Polissiou M, Anastassopoulou J, Manfait M. 1990. It is possible to part out-of h2o structure from inside the physical magnesium possibilities. Magnes Res step 3(1):5-thirteen.

van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, van’t Veer P, Volovics A, Hermus RJ, Sturmans F. 1990. A big-scale prospective cohort study on dieting and malignant tumors regarding Netherlands. J Clin Epidemiol 43(3):285-295.

VEWIN (Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven when you look at the Nederland). 1986. Statistiek wateronderzoek 1986 [inside the Dutch]. Rijswijk:Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven within the Nederland.

Relationship from gel and weight reduction magnesium in order to experience blood pressure levels: new Atherosclerosis Exposure into the Groups (ARIC) Data

Who. 1979. Health Negative effects of the removal of Compounds Happening However from inside the Drinking water, with Special Mention of the Demineralized and you may Desalinated Drinking water. EURO Profile and you can Training 16. Copenhagen: Globe Health Business Local Work environment for European countries.

Who. 2006. Which Meeting from Masters on You’ll be able to Defensive Effectation of Difficult Water Facing Cardiovascular disease, Arizona, D.C pilot dating site. Usa, 27-, Geneva: Globe Health Company. Available: [reached ].

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Yang CY, Chang CC, Tsai SS, Chiu HF. 2006. Calcium supplements and you may magnesium when you look at the h2o and chance of demise regarding serious myocardial infarction into the Taiwan. Environ Res 101(3):407-411.

Lina J. Leurs, (1) Leo J. Schouten, (1) Margreet Letter. Mons, (2) Roentgen. Alexandra Goldbohm, (3) and you may PietA. van den Brandt (1)

Selecting an effective structure to own evaluating publicity-problem dating inside a put together cohort

(1) Maastricht School, GROW-School to possess Oncology and you will Developmental Biology, Institution out-of Epidemiology, Maastricht, the netherlands; (2) KWR, Watercycle Lookup Institute, Nieuwegein, holland; (3) TNO Standard of living, Agencies off Protection and you can Fitness, Leiden, holland

Address correspondence to L.J. Leurs, Maastricht School, GROW-University getting Oncology and you will Developmental Biology, Institution from Epidemiology, P.O. Package 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, holland. Telephone: 31 0 43 3882392. Fax: 29 0 43 3884128. E-mail:

We’re with debt towards the participants for the investigation and require to thank the newest Dutch Main Agency of Genealogy and you may Statistics Netherlands to own bringing study. We plus give thanks to A good. Volovics and Good. Kester having analytical recommendations; S. van de- Crommert, H. Brants, J. Nelissen, C. de Zwart, Meters. Moll, W. van Dijk, and you can A great. Pisters to own guidelines; and you may H. van Montfort, T. van Moergasiel, L. van den Bosch, Roentgen. Schmeitz, and J. Berben getting coding guidelines.

It endeavor is conducted inside Joint Look System of your own Dutch water businesses because of the researchers out of Maastricht University and you will KWR, Watercycle Research Institute. This study was financed from the KWR, Watercycle Research Institute.

Roentgen.A beneficial.Grams. and you may Yards.N.Yards. work for asking businesses (TNO Lifestyle and you can KWR, respectively); yet not, neither has ever did any earlier lookup to your most recent thing revealed regarding manuscript. Furthermore, external writeup on the design and you may performance is used from the an effective Scientific Consultative Panel comprising P. Hunter (College or university off East Anglia), Roentgen. Rylander (emeritus professor), and you may Yards.We. Sinclair (H2o High quality Browse Australia Limited, Monash College or university).

Really education one claimed a keen inverse organization anywhere between drinking water hardness and you can IHD otherwise coronary arrest death was indeed ecologic knowledge (Kousa ainsi que al. 2004, 2006, 2008; Maheswaran et al. 1999; ; Sauvant and you may Pepin 2000). The fresh reliability of those particular education can be questioned once the of you’ll ecologic fallacy. A handful of instance-handle and cohort degree with little if any adjustment to possess confounding affairs in addition to recommended a prospective protective effect of drinking water firmness, calcium supplements otherwise magnesium levels within the h2o, into the mortality because of IHD or stroke (Luoma ainsi que al. 1983; Punsar and you can Karvonen 1979; Rubenowitz mais aussi al. 1996, 1999; Yang 1998; Yang ainsi que al. 2006). As well, extremely situation-control and you can cohort training that adjusted having several thousand prospective confounders, instance cardio risk points and you can water services, receive no relationships anywhere between liquids stiffness and IHD otherwise stroke mortality (Comstock mais aussi al. 1980; Morris mais aussi al. 2001; Rosenlund mais aussi al. 2005). The fresh new difference was the situation-control study presented because of the Rubenowitz et al. (2000) that advertised down mortality away from severe myocardial infarction ( not towards the full occurrence) and you will magnesium inside liquid after adjusting for a broad spectrum away from potential confounders.

Nutrient consumption try adjusted for opportunity consumption from the residual means (Willett and you may Stampfer 1986). The fresh new questionnaire study was key-entered double and you can canned from inside the a standardized trend blinded in accordance so you can circumstances/subcohort updates to reduce observer bias when you look at the coding and you can research translation.

The analyzed exposure variables were total tap water hardness, tap water magnesium, and calcium concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we corrected for potential confounding of other known IHD risk factors: age at baseline (years), cigarette smoking (coded as current vs. never/former smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and years of active smoking), hypertension (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), body mass index (BMI) (coded as < 18.5 kg/[m.sup.2], 18.5-25 kg/[m.sup.2], 25-30 kg/[m.sup.2], [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/[m.sup.2]), nonoccupational physical activity (coded in tour categories: very little, average, active, or very active), educational level [coded as primary school, lower vocational, high school (junior and senior), and higher vocational/university], total energy intake (kilocalories per day), alcohol consumption (coded in five categories: 0 g/day, 0.1-5 g/day, 5-15 g/day, 15-30 g/day, 2 30 g/day). energy-adjusted saturated/monounsaturated/ polyunsaturated fat consumption (grams per day), and fruit and vegetable consumption (grams per day). We included additional factors that influence the amount of calcium or magnesium absorption from tap water: use of diuretics (yes/no), multivitamin intake (yes/no), calcium supplement intake (yes/no), energy-adjusted dietary calcium and magnesium consumption (milligrams per clay), and total volume of tap water consumption (milliliters per day) (Elin 1988; Greenland et al. 2003; Hornstra et al. 1998; Wilson 1999). When tap water calcium concentration (milligrams per liter) was analyzed, additional adjustment for tap water magnesium concentration (milligrams per liter) occurred and vice versa.

Gillies Me, Paulin HV. 1983. Variability out of nutrient consumption out of liquids: a possible need into conflict along side dating from liquid quality so you can heart problems. Int J Epidemiol several(1):45-50.

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